Marilyn Crawshaw, PhD, MA CQSW DipApplSocStud, BSc(Soc)

Marilyn is the Chair of PROGAR. Formerly Senior Lecturer in Social Work, Marilyn is now an Honorary Fellow at the University of York. As well as practising as a social worker in this field for many years (including fertility counselling), she has written and researched into related areas including the experiences of donor conception, surrogacy, cancer-related fertility and adoption.

Marilyn was the national Adviser to UK DonorLink, the Dept of Health funded Voluntary information Exchange and Contact Register for adults genetically related through donor conception pre 1991 from its inception in 2004 to its transfer to the Donor Conceived Register in April 2013. A former Social and Ethical Inspector and External Adviser to the HFEA, Marilyn was part of an advisory group that helped the HFEA shape its professional support and intermediary services for donor conceived adults approaching the HFEA to exercise their statutory right to information about their donor(s). A founder member of the British Infertility Counselling Association (BICA), Marilyn is editor of the BICA Practice Guide series. Marilyn also contributes to the Preparation for Parenthood workshops run by the peer support organisation, Donor Conception Network.

Recent Selected publications regarding donor conception and surrogacy

Marilyn Crawshaw and Ken Daniels 'Revisiting the use of ‘counselling’ as a means of preparing prospective parents to meet the emerging psychosocial needs of families that have used gamete donation' Families, Relationships and Societies in press

Frith, L., Blyth, E., Crawshaw, M. and van den Akker, O. (2017) Secrets and disclosure in donor conception Sociology of Health and Illness DOI:10.1111/1467-9566.12633  On-line link to read only version - -

Frith, L., Blyth, E., Crawshaw, M. and van den Akker, O. (2017) Searching for 'relations' using a DNA linking register by adults conceived following sperm donation BioSocieties (0), 1-20 DOI 10.1057/s41292-017-0063-2 OR on-line link to read only version -

Crawshaw, M. (2017) Direct-to-consumer DNA testing – the fallout for individuals and their families unexpectedly learning of their donor conception origins Human Fertility DOI:

Blyth, Eric, Crawshaw, Marilyn., Rodino, Iolanda and Thorn, Petra (2017) Donor-conceived people do benefit from being told about their conception BioNews Commentary 902

Crawshaw, M. and 38 others (2017) Disclosure and donor-conceived children Human Reproduction doi:10.1093/humrep/dex107

E.D. Blyth, M. Crawshaw, L. Frith, O. van den Akker (2017) Gamete donors’ motivations for, expectations and experiences of registration with a voluntary donor linking register Human Fertility Vol 20 No 4: 268-278

Marilyn Crawshaw, Eric Blyth and Julia Feast (2017) Can the UK’s birth registration system better serve the interests of those born following collaborative assisted reproduction? Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online 4 (2017) pp. 1-4

Marilyn Crawshaw ‘What social workers need to know about surrogacy, 14th December 2016 -

M. Crawshaw, L. Frith, O. van den Akker and E.D. Blyth (2016) Voluntary DNA-based information exchange and contact services following donor conception: an analysis of service users’ needs New Genetics and Society DOI: 10.1080/14636778.2016.1253462.

Eric Blyth and Marilyn Crawshaw Retrospective removal of donor anonymity: respectful, fair, grateful and moral? An evidence-based argument 21 March 2016 BioNews 844

Marilyn Crawshaw, Ken Daniels, Damian Adams, Kate Bourne, J.A.P. van Hooff, Wendy Kramer, Lauri Pasch, Petra Thorn (2015) Emerging models for facilitating contact between people genetically related through donor conception: a preliminary analysis and discussion Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online 1 (2015) pp.71-80 DOI: 10.1016/j.rbms.2015.10.001

Eric Blyth, Marilyn Crawshaw and Patricia Fronek (2015) Reform of UK surrogacy laws: the need for evidence BioNews Commentary 813

Wendy Norton, Marilyn Crawshaw, Nicky Hudson, Lorraine Culley, Caroline Law (2015) A survey of UK fertility clinics' approach to surrogacy arrangements Reproductive Biomedicine Online 31, 327-338 ; DOI:10.1016/j.rbmo.2015.06.009

Pim M.W. Janssens, Petra Thorn, Jose A. Castilla, Lucy Frith, Marilyn Crawshaw, Monique Mochtar, Lars Bjorndahl, Ulrik Kvist, Jackson Kirkman-Brown (2015) 'Evolving minimum standards in responsible international sperm donor offspring quota’ RBM Online 30, 6, pp 568–580 DOI:

Blyth E. and Crawshaw M (2015) Breaches of the HFEA's donor 'ten family' limit - who should be told what? BioNews 786

van den Akker OBA, Crawshaw MA, Blyth ED, and Frith LJ (2015) Expectations and experiences of gamete donors and donor-conceived adults searching for genetic relatives using DNA linking through a voluntary register Human Reproduction Vol 1, pp 111-121

Crawshaw, Marilyn and Wallbank J (2014) Is the birth registration system fit for purpose? The rights of donor conceived adults to access information about biological as well as legal parentage. Family Law August Vol 44 pp1069-1216

Blyth, E., Crawshaw M. And van den Akker O. (2014) What are the best interests of the child in international surrogacy? BioNews Commentary 742

Fronek P. And Crawshaw M. (2014) The ‘new’ family as an emerging norm: A commentary on the position of social work in assisted reproduction British Journal of Social Work 45(2): 737-746. doi:10.1093/bjsw/bct198

Crawshaw M. and Montuschi O. (2014) It ‘did what it said on the tin’ - Participants’ Views of the content and process of Donor Conception Parenthood Preparation Workshops Human Fertility 17, 1, 11-20

Wilde, R., McTavish, A. and Crawshaw, M. (2014) Family Building using Donated Gametes and Embryos in the UK: Recommendations for Policy and Practice on behalf of the British Fertility Society and the British Infertility Counselling Association and in collaboration with the Association of Clinical Embryologists and the Royal College of Nurses Fertility Nurses Forum Human Fertility 17, 1, 1-10 DOI: 10.3109/14647273.2013.862041

Crawshaw M and Montuschi O (2013) ‘Participants' Views of Attending Parenthood Preparation Workshops for those contemplating donor conception parenthood’ Journal of Infant and Reproductive Psychology DOI:10.1080/02646838.2012.748886

Crawshaw M., Gunter C, Tidy C. and Atherton F. (2013) Working with previously anonymous gamete donors and donor-conceived adults: recent practice experiences of running the DNA-based voluntary information exchange and contact register, UK DonorLink Human Fertility Invited for Special edition 16, 1, pp 26-30

Crawshaw M., Blyth E. and van den Akker O. (2012) ‘The changing profile of surrogacy in the UK – Implications for national and international policy and practice’ Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law vol 34:3 265-275

Blyth E, Crawshaw M, Frith L and Jones C (2012) ‘Donor-conceived people’s views and experiences of their genetic origins: a critical analysis of the research evidence’ Journal of Law and Medicine 19(4) June 769-789 Invited paper for special edition

Crawshaw M and Dally J (2012) ‘Producing sperm, egg and embryo donors’ pen portraits and other personal information for later use by donor offspring: an exploratory study of professional practices’ Human Fertility 15(2); 82-88

Crawshaw M, Purewal S, and van den Akker O (2012) ‘Working at the margins: The views and experiences of court social workers on Parental Orders’ work in surrogacy arrangements’ British Journal of Social Work doi: 10.1093/bjsw/bcs045

Purewal S, Crawshaw M and van den Akker O (2012) ‘Completing the surrogate motherhood process: The experiences of Parental Order Reporters’ Human Fertility 15(2); 94-99

Crawshaw M and Adams D (2011) ‘Rising from the Ashes: Two countries, two reviews of donor conception services - Australia leads the way’ BioNews Commentary

Crawshaw M and Balen R (eds) (2010) Adopting after Infertility – Messages from Practice, Research and Personal Experience London, Jessica Kingsley Publishers

Crawshaw M and Marshall L (2008) ‘Practice experiences of running UK DonorLink, a voluntary information exchange and contact register for adults related through donor conception’ Human Fertility Vol 11 No 4 pp 231-237

Crawshaw M. (2008) ‘Prospective parents’ intentions regarding disclosure following the removal of donor anonymity’ Human Fertility Vol 11(2) pp 95-100

Blyth E., Frith L. and Crawshaw M. (2008) 'Ethical objections to sex selection for non-medical reasons’ Reproductive BioMedicine Online Vol 16 Suppl 1 pp41-45

Crawshaw M.A., Blyth E.D. and Daniels K.D. (2007) ‘Past semen donors’ views about the use of a voluntary contact register’ Reproductive BioMedicine Online Vol 14 No 4 pp411-417

Wincott E and Crawshaw M.A. (2006) ‘From a social issue to policy: social work's advocacy for the rights of donor conceived people to genetic origins information in the UK’ Social Work in Health Care Vol 43 no 2/3 p53-72

Balen R and Crawshaw M (eds)(2006) Sexuality and Fertility in Ill Health and Disability: From early adolescence to adulthood London, Jessica Kingsley